Sizing equipment for closed-transition transfer operation

Fault contributions of all parallel sources must be considered only for systems designed for continuous parallel operation.


There is some question as to the proper way to perform short-circuit analysis of systems that use closed-transition equipment. This article explores the rationale that it is not necessary to count the contribution of parallel sources to a fault if they are not designed to be operated in parallel. Where systems are designed for continuous parallel operation, the fault contributions of all parallel sources must be considered. 

Closed-transition equipment

Figure 1: Operation of closed-transition equipment, such as switchgear and automatic transfer switches, is typically limited to critical services where momentary interruptions during transfer testing cannot be tolerated. Courtesy: BallingerClosed-transition equipment (switchgear and automatic transfer switches) uses a make-before-break operating sequence to maintain uninterrupted power to essential loads throughout a transfer between live sources (see Figure 1). The importance of this is tied to the requirement to operate the transfer equipment periodically to comply with mandatory testing requirements, with the desire to avoid causing a disruption to electrical loads. Typically, the use of closed-transition equipment is limited to critical services where momentary interruptions during transfer testing cannot be tolerated. Hospitals, laboratories, and data centers are among the facility occupancies that often consider using closed transition in their automatic transfer switches, and for their main and/or substation switchgear.

Where closed-transition switchgear is used, short-term paralleling of two separate utility services occurs (see Figure 2). These services may originate from different sources within the utility grid. In these cases, coordination with the servicing utility and their engineering requirements is crucial to the success of the project. The serving utility normally requires that the transition be automatically supervised by synchronism-check relays, and that breaker interlocking controls are provided to limit the time duration of the parallel operation (100 msec—or 6 cycles—is a typical requirement, but it does vary from utility to utility). There are some utilities that do not allow their services to be paralleled, allowing only open-transition switchgear. 

Figure 2: This diagram shows a typical main-tie-main switchgear arrangement. Depending on the configuration, feeders may be paralleled to allow a fault to be served from multiple utility sources. Courtesy: Ballinger

More common is the use of closed-transition automatic transfer switches. These switches also have a make-before-break sequence that allows the emergency source (typically one or more generators) to be operated in parallel with utility power for a short period of time (again, typically 100 msec) during transfers to and from generator power, where a stable utility source is present (see Figure 3). The use of closed-transition switches is especially popular in hospitals where generator and transfer switch testing can be performed without interruption to hospital activities if closed-transition equipment is used.

Figure 3: If closed-transition switches are used, for a short time (approximately 100 msec), both sources could feed a fault on the load side of the automatic transfer switch. A typical, 100 msec closed-transition automatic transfer switch does not operat

Effects on available short-circuit current

Many engineers are hesitant to use closed-transition equipment. This is because of the understanding that closed-transition adds size and cost to the project due to the need for increased fault-duty ratings. This engineering opinion is based on a common interpretation of the National Electrical Code (NEC)—specifically Articles 110.9 and 705.16 of the 2011 edition, which state:

110.9 Interrupting Rating. Equipment intended to interrupt current at fault levels shall have an interrupting rating not less than the nominal circuit voltage and the current that is available at the line terminals of the equipment. 

705.16 Interrupting and Short Circuit Current Rating. Consideration shall be given to the contribution of fault currents from all interconnected power sources for the interrupting and short-circuit current ratings of equipment on interactive systems. 

Taken at face value, these references seem to imply that the equipment specified—whether closed-transition switchgear or closed transition transfer switches and all of the equipment located downstream of these closed-transition devices—should be rated to interrupt the full available fault current of all utility and/or generator sources that may be connected during a closed-transition switching procedure. However, digging deeper reveals a picture that is not as clear cut. 

In reviewing the NEC Handbook, Articles 110.9 and 110.10 are a matched pair of requirements. The Code Commentary for Article 110.10 states that “Literature on how to calculate short-circuit currents at each point in any distribution system generally can be obtained by contacting the manufacturers of overcurrent protective devices or by referring to IEEE 141-1993 (R1999): IEEE Recommended Practice for Electrical Power Distribution for Industrial Plants (Red Book).” Furthermore, the Code Commentary for Article 705.1 states that “Article 705 sets forth basic safety requirements for the installation of generators and other types of power production sources that are interconnected and operate in parallel as distributed generation.” Clearly, the use of closed-transition equipment does not equate to distributed generation. 

The NEC Code Making Panel reviewed proposed changes to the wording of Article 110.9 in 2002 and again in 2005 to specifically allow the short-circuit rating to be exceeded in cases of a momentary closed transition. Both proposals were defeated. However, it is instructive to review the statement of the Code Making Panel in its rejection of the 2002 proposal: 

Complex systems design criteria such as closed transition are inappropriate for specific inclusion in the NEC. Existing sections, such as 90-4 may be an appropriate avenue to deal with such issues. 

Therefore, the NEC has specifically taken no position on the proper way to conduct a short-circuit study, but merely is stating that the results of the study will influence the selection of equipment with regard to short-circuit withstand and interrupting ratings. 

Although the NEC commentary invokes IEEE 141 as an appropriate standard for the performance of a short-circuit study, that standard is silent on the issue of how to handle closed-transition between sources, as is IEEE 242-2001: IEEE Recommended Practice for Protection and Coordination of Industrial and Commercial Power Systems and IEEE 399-1997: IEEE Recommended Practice for Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Analysis. In fact, the only standard that actually addresses the issue directly is IEEE 666-1991 (R2007): IEEE Design Guide for Electric Power Service Systems for Generating Stations. In this standard, Part 4.6.1 states that “The major concern when paralleling both sources is fault current, which will be larger than that calculated for a single source. However, it is acceptable practice to design for the single-source condition if the duration of parallel operation is short.” Although this paragraph is specifically for manual transfer schemes, Part 4.6.2 regarding automatic transfers does incorporate Part 4.6.1.

While not directly applicable to facilities other than generating stations, IEEE 666 is the only standard that directly addresses the issue of closed transition versus fault current and, as such, is the most appropriate standard to apply in the design of closed-transition systems. Based on this, it is a reasonable practice to ignore the contribution of parallel sources in properly supervised closed-transition schemes when the following design considerations are included.

Design considerations

When designing a closed-transition system, it is imperative that the system be designed with interlocks that prevent the inadvertent and indefinite paralleling of sources. The following design rules should be used when designing closed-transition systems:

1. Closed-transition switchgear should be designed such that manual transfers are manually initiated and automatically interlocked. This prevents utility sources from being paralleled for an excessive amount of time. This transition should take place in the range of 100 msec, depending on specific utility requirements.

2. Closed-transition switchgear should be designed with a nondefeatable safety-circuit timing relay, which will cause source disconnection within a predetermined time if the sources are manually paralleled, or the closed-transition interlocking scheme fails to perform. For example, a timing relay that opens the tie breaker if both utility mains are closed for 10 sec would serve this function.

a. Transfer schemes for closed-transition switchgear shall be designed such that a transfer cannot be initiated into a downstream fault condition.

3. Where closed-transition automatic transfer switches are specified, a shunt-trip circuit breaker on the emergency feeder could be specified to force the emergency feeder to open in the case of a failed-closed transition.

4. All of the functions noted in 1-3 above should be alarmed and annunciated.

Due to their nature and required supervision capabilities, closed-transition systems are somewhat more expensive than open-transition systems. However, when properly designed, the cost of these systems need not be prohibitive. 


Based on a review of applicable codes and standards, there is no need to consider both sources of fault current when sizing equipment for closed-transition transfer schemes. However, when making this determination, it is important that the proper electrical interlocking or other supervision techniques are used to ensure that the system cannot be inadvertently placed into a maintained parallel state, which would require that the equipment be sized for the combined parallel sources. This will assure a safe, cost-effective installation that complies with NEC requirements, and is consistent with IEEE guidelines. 


Benjamin O. Medich is a senior associate and senior electrical engineer at Ballinger. He has been designing electrical systems for hospitals, labs, and universities for more than 16 years, and has published articles on arc flash analysis and selective coordination. 

The Top Plant program honors outstanding manufacturing facilities in North America. View the 2015 Top Plant.
The Product of the Year program recognizes products newly released in the manufacturing industries.
Each year, a panel of Control Engineering and Plant Engineering editors and industry expert judges select the System Integrator of the Year Award winners in three categories.
Pipe fabrication and IIoT; 2017 Product of the Year finalists
The future of electrical safety; Four keys to RPM success; Picking the right weld fume option
A new approach to the Skills Gap; Community colleges may hold the key for manufacturing; 2017 Engineering Leaders Under 40
Control room technology innovation; Practical approaches to corrosion protection; Pipeline regulator revises quality programs
The cloud, mobility, and remote operations; SCADA and contextual mobility; Custom UPS empowering a secure pipeline
Infrastructure for natural gas expansion; Artificial lift methods; Disruptive technology and fugitive gas emissions
Power system design for high-performance buildings; mitigating arc flash hazards
VFDs improving motion control applications; Powering automation and IIoT wirelessly; Connecting the dots
Natural gas engines; New applications for fuel cells; Large engines become more efficient; Extending boiler life

Annual Salary Survey

Before the calendar turned, 2016 already had the makings of a pivotal year for manufacturing, and for the world.

There were the big events for the year, including the United States as Partner Country at Hannover Messe in April and the 2016 International Manufacturing Technology Show in Chicago in September. There's also the matter of the U.S. presidential elections in November, which promise to shape policy in manufacturing for years to come.

But the year started with global economic turmoil, as a slowdown in Chinese manufacturing triggered a worldwide stock hiccup that sent values plummeting. The continued plunge in world oil prices has resulted in a slowdown in exploration and, by extension, the manufacture of exploration equipment.

Read more: 2015 Salary Survey

Maintenance and reliability tips and best practices from the maintenance and reliability coaches at Allied Reliability Group.
The One Voice for Manufacturing blog reports on federal public policy issues impacting the manufacturing sector. One Voice is a joint effort by the National Tooling and Machining...
The Society for Maintenance and Reliability Professionals an organization devoted...
Join this ongoing discussion of machine guarding topics, including solutions assessments, regulatory compliance, gap analysis...
IMS Research, recently acquired by IHS Inc., is a leading independent supplier of market research and consultancy to the global electronics industry.
Maintenance is not optional in manufacturing. It’s a profit center, driving productivity and uptime while reducing overall repair costs.
The Lachance on CMMS blog is about current maintenance topics. Blogger Paul Lachance is president and chief technology officer for Smartware Group.
The maintenance journey has been a long, slow trek for most manufacturers and has gone from preventive maintenance to predictive maintenance.
This digital report explains how plant engineers and subject matter experts (SME) need support for time series data and its many challenges.
This digital report will explore several aspects of how IIoT will transform manufacturing in the coming years.
Maintenance Manager; California Oils Corp.
Associate, Electrical Engineering; Wood Harbinger
Control Systems Engineer; Robert Bosch Corp.
This course focuses on climate analysis, appropriateness of cooling system selection, and combining cooling systems.
This course will help identify and reveal electrical hazards and identify the solutions to implementing and maintaining a safe work environment.
This course explains how maintaining power and communication systems through emergency power-generation systems is critical.
click me