# Growing recent graduates into controls engineers

## Too many recent engineering graduates have never set foot inside a process plant before, or they have very little experience with process control systems.

06/03/2014

An old friend of mine tells a story about his first project meeting after joining an engineering company fresh out of school. The lead engineer kept saying that it was a “grassroots project,” so my friend finally asked “How do you make paper out of grass roots?” We’ve all been there in one way or another, but what we do isn’t brain surgery. It isn’t even rocket science—though it’s closer. So how do we teach our new graduates to be controls engineers? Many newly minted engineers have never set foot in a process plant or if they have my experience is they got very little exposure to the process control system. The many control theory classes, from my experience, don’t seem to be very tied to the real world but focuses on the math associated with things like Laplace transforms, feedback circuits and the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) equations with little connection to what happens when the output of that equation hits the real world of valves, dampers, and variable speed drives.

What I find when I teach a new graduate about the day-to-day world of process control is that I have to teach them the basics of process control devices first. Again, depending on the university they attended and their degree they may or may not have heard a certain term, like “normally open contact” or what that means in the context of a process switch. These days even electrical engineers may or may not have a good grasp of physical contacts as opposed to solid state switches. I’m teaching a class right now with a new chemical engineer and was using the very simple example of starting and stopping a pump using two pressure switches and the motor run contact from the starter in a failsafe design. Like this programmable logic controller (PLC) ladder logic diagram:

The training problem was to create a configuration that would accomplish this very simple task, but first I had to explain what the symbols meant, then I had to explain what was meant by “normally open” or “normally closed,” and then I had to explain where the contact labeled with “M” came from. As part of explaining the normally open/closed concept, I had to explain what the difference is between shelf state and normal operation state for a physical switch. Not as simple as you might think because for my logic to work both the low pressure and high pressure switches’ shelf states are normally closed, opening when the pressure goes above 10 psi for the PSL and above 60 psi for the PSH, but in normal operation the PSL will always be open potentially creating confusion about what’s normal.

If I’d drawn it using relay logic conventions it would have appeared that the circuit would always be energized. And therein lies a problem, there are still plenty of plants that use relay logic for things like burner management systems. I’ve just been working on a boiler project where that’s the case. If I give my newbies a copy of the relay logic drawing for programming they’ll likely not realize that the normally closed symbol on the drawing equates to the “examine if closed” function in the PLC, creating a mess. Again, depending on curriculum and institution a new graduate may or may not have ever seen a relay style logic drawing, or—for that matter—a motor elementary diagram.

Other rather basic concepts that need to be taught include: fail open vs. fail closed valves and how that might change their programming; direct vs. reverse acting loops which are handled differently depending on the control system being programmed; fail safe logic implementation; the impact of impedance on solid state switches; the differences in measurement technologies; what happens when a valve is oversized or sticks; and a thousand other things that for those of us who have been in the business for a long time don’t even have to think about.

So what things do you have to teach your new grads and what have you found most successful in making them process controls engineers?

This post was written by Bruce Brandt. Bruce is a Principal Engineer at MAVERICK Technologies, a leading automation solutions provider offering industrial automation, strategic manufacturing, and enterprise integration services for the process industries. MAVERICK delivers expertise and consulting in a wide variety of areas including industrial automation controls, distributed control systems, manufacturing execution systems, operational strategy, business process optimization and more.

John , OH, United States, 06/05/14 11:41 AM:

this article is so true. I remember when I started and I had a relay panel drawing in from of me for a machine and I asked the engineer I was working for why do you have all the capacitors on that machine and he laughed. They don't teach controls in college most college kids come to the plant and want to work on TTL stuff. They don't understand 480 3-phase power, hydraulics, VFD and so on. I teach classes at night to elecricians about programming and varous items but you are exactly right new graduates have no clue how to be a control engineer. good article
DAVID , SC, United States, 07/11/14 02:56 PM:

The year was 1979 and, as an college intern EE, I was tasked with putting together the Logic Diagram to control a packaging line process. Proudly, I handed my "digital logic" design drawing and "tested control board" to my EE Supervisor. He patiently studied it, said that it would work, and added "now, let me show you how we do this in the real world." It was then that I was introduced to Relay Ladder Logic! The adventure has continued to this day.
The Top Plant program honors outstanding manufacturing facilities in North America. View the 2015 Top Plant.
The Product of the Year program recognizes products newly released in the manufacturing industries.
Each year, a panel of Control Engineering and Plant Engineering editors and industry expert judges select the System Integrator of the Year Award winners in three categories.
2017 Lubrication Guide; Software tools; Microgrids and energy strategies; Use robots effectively
Prescriptive maintenance; Hannover Messe 2017 recap; Reduce welding errors
Safety standards and electrical test instruments; Product of the Year winners; Easy and safe electrical design
Infrastructure for natural gas expansion; Artificial lift methods; Disruptive technology and fugitive gas emissions
Mobility as the means to offshore innovation; Preventing another Deepwater Horizon; ROVs as subsea robots; SCADA and the radio spectrum
Future of oil and gas projects; Reservoir models; The importance of SCADA to oil and gas
Diagnostic functions for system safety; Specifying industrial enclosures; Effective decision support for a crisis
Transformers; Electrical system design; Selecting and sizing transformers; Grounded and ungrounded system design, Paralleling generator systems
Natural gas for tomorrow's fleets; Colleges and universities moving to CHP; Power and steam and frozen foods

### Annual Salary Survey

Before the calendar turned, 2016 already had the makings of a pivotal year for manufacturing, and for the world.

There were the big events for the year, including the United States as Partner Country at Hannover Messe in April and the 2016 International Manufacturing Technology Show in Chicago in September. There's also the matter of the U.S. presidential elections in November, which promise to shape policy in manufacturing for years to come.

But the year started with global economic turmoil, as a slowdown in Chinese manufacturing triggered a worldwide stock hiccup that sent values plummeting. The continued plunge in world oil prices has resulted in a slowdown in exploration and, by extension, the manufacture of exploration equipment.

Maintenance and reliability tips and best practices from the maintenance and reliability coaches at Allied Reliability Group.
The One Voice for Manufacturing blog reports on federal public policy issues impacting the manufacturing sector. One Voice is a joint effort by the National Tooling and Machining...
The Society for Maintenance and Reliability Professionals an organization devoted...
Join this ongoing discussion of machine guarding topics, including solutions assessments, regulatory compliance, gap analysis...
IMS Research, recently acquired by IHS Inc., is a leading independent supplier of market research and consultancy to the global electronics industry.
Maintenance is not optional in manufacturing. It’s a profit center, driving productivity and uptime while reducing overall repair costs.
The Lachance on CMMS blog is about current maintenance topics. Blogger Paul Lachance is president and chief technology officer for Smartware Group.
The maintenance journey has been a long, slow trek for most manufacturers and has gone from preventive maintenance to predictive maintenance.
Featured articles highlight technologies that enable the Industrial Internet of Things, IIoT-related products and strategies to get data more easily to the user.
This digital report will explore several aspects of how IIoT will transform manufacturing in the coming years.
Maintenance Manager; California Oils Corp.
Associate, Electrical Engineering; Wood Harbinger
Control Systems Engineer; Robert Bosch Corp.
This course focuses on climate analysis, appropriateness of cooling system selection, and combining cooling systems.
This course will help identify and reveal electrical hazards and identify the solutions to implementing and maintaining a safe work environment.
This course explains how maintaining power and communication systems through emergency power-generation systems is critical.