A systematic approach to ac motor repair

ANSI/EASA AR100 provides best practices for mechanical repair, electrical repair including rewinding, and testing that help apparatus rebuilders maintain or enhance the performance, reliability, and energy efficiency of ac and dc motors and generators.

03/04/2015


Figure 1: A random-wound stator damaged by contact with the rotor. (All images courtesy of EASA)The only national standard for repair of motors and generators is ANSI/EASA AR100-2010: Recommended Practice for the Repair of Rotating Electrical Apparatus (AR100). It provides best practices for mechanical repair, electrical repair including rewinding, and testing that help apparatus rebuilders maintain or enhance the performance, reliability, and energy efficiency of ac and dc motors and generators.

The focus here is on the electrical aspects of ac machine repair that this standard prescribes, and that form the basis of EASA’s new service center accreditation program.

Many of the good practices in AR100 that help maintain motor reliability and efficiency were identified through a comprehensive rewind study that was published in 2003 by EASA and the Association of Electrical and Mechanical Trades (AEMT), a United Kingdom-based service center association.

One value of AR100 for end users is that it describes “good repair practices” in just 22 pages. Another is that by requiring service centers to comply with these practices, end users can be sure repairs will conform to the requirements of a recognized American national standard. Further, the good practice recommendations in AR100 cited in this article are mandatory requirements in the EASA accreditation program. End users who choose EASA-accredited service centers also have the assurance of a third-party audit that these requirements will be met.

Figure 2: Open rotor bars detected by visual inspection.Rewinding

AR100 concisely states the requirements for a good practice rewind in only two pages, beginning with inspection of the windings (Figure 1) and squirrel-cage rotor bars and end rings. Since the rotor is an electrical component—the rotating secondary of a transformer, with the stator being the primary—defective rotor bars or end rings (Figure 2) could reduce output torque or cause vibration.

Winding data. Exact duplication of the original winding characteristics is crucial to maintaining motor performance, reliability, and energy efficiency. AR100 therefore recommends recording and checking the accuracy of the “as-found” winding data before destroying the old winding. It also advocates keeping the cross-sectional area of the conductors the same (or larger, if possible) in the new winding, and not increasing the average length of the coil extensions. These good practices will maintain or reduce winding resistance and losses, thereby maintaining or increasing winding life and energy efficiency.

Stator core testing. Stator cores consist of a stack of thin steel laminations that are insulated on all surfaces and have a circular opening for the bore. Evenly spaced notches around the circumference of the bore form slots to hold the winding.

The good practices for core inspection and testing in AR100 focus on detecting core degradation (e.g., shorts between laminations cause circulating currents that increase stator heating and losses). Among them are loop or core testing before and after winding removal, investigation of any increase in core losses, and repair or replacement of damaged laminations. This helps identify a faulty core before repair—or worse, after the repaired machine is put in service.

Winding removal. AR100 gives special directions on how to remove or strip the old windings from the stator core without damaging the laminations. For instance, it recommends first thermally degrading the winding insulation in a temperature-controlled oven, while closely monitoring the temperature of the part (typically the stator). The accreditation program goes beyond this recommendation and provides a specific temperature limit of 700 F (370 C). This helps prevent damage to the stator core when the windings are removed.

Figure 3: Class H random coils being made on a semi-automated winding machine.Insulation system. AR100 recommends that the new winding’s insulation system be equal to or better than the original, and use only compatible components. Service centers typically achieve the “better than” option by using class H systems (180 C) for random windings (see Figure 3) and class F systems (155 C) for form coil windings. Most original manufacturers use either class F (155 C) or class B (130 C) random windings and class B (130 C) form coil windings.

Rewind procedure and slot fill. Regarding the rewind process, AR100 states that the new winding should have the same electrical characteristics as the original. This is best accomplished by copy rewinding. This requires using the same size conductors (wire cross-sectional area), the same number of turns per coil, and the same coil dimensions as the original.

One good practice in AR100 that can improve efficiency is to increase the wire cross-sectional area. This increases conductivity and reduces losses. Another is to reduce the average length of coil turns, which reduces winding resistance and losses.

Guidance on how to repair rotor squirrel cage and amortisseur windings reinforces the need to maintain the machine’s original performance characteristics. This requires three things:

  • Rotor bars fit tightly in the core slots.
  • Bar-to-end ring connections are welded or brazed.
  • The rotor cage retains its original electrical characteristics and can withstand normal thermal and mechanical forces.

Winding impregnation. When applied properly, the varnish/resin treatment binds winding components tightly together while ensuring good heat transfer from the winding to the stator core and cooling air. AR100 therefore stresses the importance of winding impregnation practices that include preheating the stator winding; selecting a varnish/resin with an adequate thermal rating; and using a treatment that’s both compatible with the insulation system and suitable for the application environment.


<< First < Previous 1 2 Next > Last >>

CARLOS , Non-US/Not Applicable, Mexico, 03/12/15 10:41 AM:

Any information is usefull to us. Make us a complete helper for our customers. I will try to get that AR100.
Thanks in advanced,
And Best regards,
Carlos Cruz Parker.
The Top Plant program honors outstanding manufacturing facilities in North America. View the 2015 Top Plant.
The Product of the Year program recognizes products newly released in the manufacturing industries.
Each year, a panel of Control Engineering and Plant Engineering editors and industry expert judges select the System Integrator of the Year Award winners in three categories.
2017 Lubrication Guide; Software tools; Microgrids and energy strategies; Use robots effectively
Prescriptive maintenance; Hannover Messe 2017 recap; Reduce welding errors
Safety standards and electrical test instruments; Product of the Year winners; Easy and safe electrical design
Infrastructure for natural gas expansion; Artificial lift methods; Disruptive technology and fugitive gas emissions
Mobility as the means to offshore innovation; Preventing another Deepwater Horizon; ROVs as subsea robots; SCADA and the radio spectrum
Future of oil and gas projects; Reservoir models; The importance of SCADA to oil and gas
Diagnostic functions for system safety; Specifying industrial enclosures; Effective decision support for a crisis
Transformers; Electrical system design; Selecting and sizing transformers; Grounded and ungrounded system design, Paralleling generator systems
Natural gas for tomorrow's fleets; Colleges and universities moving to CHP; Power and steam and frozen foods

Annual Salary Survey

Before the calendar turned, 2016 already had the makings of a pivotal year for manufacturing, and for the world.

There were the big events for the year, including the United States as Partner Country at Hannover Messe in April and the 2016 International Manufacturing Technology Show in Chicago in September. There's also the matter of the U.S. presidential elections in November, which promise to shape policy in manufacturing for years to come.

But the year started with global economic turmoil, as a slowdown in Chinese manufacturing triggered a worldwide stock hiccup that sent values plummeting. The continued plunge in world oil prices has resulted in a slowdown in exploration and, by extension, the manufacture of exploration equipment.

Read more: 2015 Salary Survey

Maintenance and reliability tips and best practices from the maintenance and reliability coaches at Allied Reliability Group.
The One Voice for Manufacturing blog reports on federal public policy issues impacting the manufacturing sector. One Voice is a joint effort by the National Tooling and Machining...
The Society for Maintenance and Reliability Professionals an organization devoted...
Join this ongoing discussion of machine guarding topics, including solutions assessments, regulatory compliance, gap analysis...
IMS Research, recently acquired by IHS Inc., is a leading independent supplier of market research and consultancy to the global electronics industry.
Maintenance is not optional in manufacturing. It’s a profit center, driving productivity and uptime while reducing overall repair costs.
The Lachance on CMMS blog is about current maintenance topics. Blogger Paul Lachance is president and chief technology officer for Smartware Group.
The maintenance journey has been a long, slow trek for most manufacturers and has gone from preventive maintenance to predictive maintenance.
Featured articles highlight technologies that enable the Industrial Internet of Things, IIoT-related products and strategies to get data more easily to the user.
This digital report will explore several aspects of how IIoT will transform manufacturing in the coming years.
Maintenance Manager; California Oils Corp.
Associate, Electrical Engineering; Wood Harbinger
Control Systems Engineer; Robert Bosch Corp.
This course focuses on climate analysis, appropriateness of cooling system selection, and combining cooling systems.
This course will help identify and reveal electrical hazards and identify the solutions to implementing and maintaining a safe work environment.
This course explains how maintaining power and communication systems through emergency power-generation systems is critical.
click me