Evaluating low and medium voltage motor starting devices

Voltage fluctuations not only affect performance, it can also put the safety of electrical devices and users at risk. That’s where motor starting devices come into play. They ensure electrical equipment gives optimum performance and lasts lifetime despite worst case line voltage and load conditions.


Every time we switch on electrical equipment, all we wish and pray is that it will work properly. But switching loads can be quite a headache even with the best of devices.

The reason? Voltage fluctuations not only affect performance, it can also put the safety of electrical devices and users at risk. That’s where motor starting devices come into play. They ensure electrical equipment gives optimum performance and lasts lifetime despite worst case line voltage and load conditions.

What is a motor starting device?

All motors must have a control device to start and stop the motor called “motor controller”. In Art 100, the National Electrical Code (NEC) defines a controller as “a device or group of devices that serves to govern, in some predetermined manner, the electric power delivered to the apparatus to which it is connected.” A NEC definition in Art.430.2 states, “A controller is any switch or device that is normally used to start and stop a motor by making and breaking the motor circuit current.”

Simply put, motor controller is the actual device that energizes and de-energizes the circuit to the motor so that it can start and stop.The starting mechanism that energizes the circuit to an induction motor is called the “starter”.When a motor is energized, the starting device’s role is to supply the motor with sufficient current to provide adequate starting torque under worst case line voltage and load conditions.

Low voltage motor-starting contactor:

A most commonly used device, the low voltage motor-starting contactor is designed for best possible performance and lifetime even in worst line voltage and load conditions.It plays part in reliable operation and protection of the motor and the personnel using the motor. Defined as “a two-state (on-off) device for repeatedly establishing and interrupting an electric power circuit”, a contactor obtains interruption by introducing a gap or very large impedance.

Contactors are different from circuit breakers, their function is not to interrupt short-circuit current.  Circuits of a motor require separate protection for short-circuit.Use of contactors is typically referred to as magnetic control for they are closed magnetically via their control coils.

Small motors can use low voltage motor-starting contactors in the form of fractional-horsepower, manual control switches.All the designing and manufacturing of motor starting contactors and switches in the US is required as per following norms: UL 508, NEMA ICS-1 and NEMA ICS-2.

Low voltage motor-starting contactors are capable of interrupting operating overloads but not short circuits or faults beyond operating overloads.On the basis of interrupting medium and their ability to interrupt currents, low voltage manual and magnetic controllers have been classified in the following three categories:

  • Class A: Oil-immersed manual, magnetic or AC air-break and vacuum break controllers meant for service on up to 600 V.
  • Class B: Magnetic or DC air-break manual controllers which are meant for service on up to 600 V.
  • Class V: Vacuum-break magnetic controllers for service on up to 1500 V.

Rated by NEMA, low voltage contactors are designed from smallest size (00) to the largest (9) for various duty applications.

Control Method

Contactors are controlled through the use of maintained-contact device which is referred to as two-wire control.For added advantage of allowing the contactor to open and remain open even if the line voltage fails, momentary contact devices are used in the control of contactors. This is referred to as three-wire control.In case of a power failure, the three-wire control protects motors from under-voltage and also prevents inadvertent re-energization.

Medium Voltage Contactors: The Basics

Using vacuum for interruption, medium voltage contactors provide safe and reliable protection even in most demanding operating conditions.They are load breaking devices with a limited short circuit making and breaking capacity.

The Classification:

Class E: The controllers in this class include medium voltage air-break, vacuum, or oil-immersed controllers.Controllers in Class E have been divided into two (Class E1 and Class E2) categories:

  • Class E1: Controllers in this category make use of their contacts to start or stop a motor. Contacts are also employed to interrupt a short circuit or fault which is beyond the operating overloads.
  • Class E2: Controllers in this category make use of their contacts to start or stop a motor and employ fuses to interrupt short circuits and faults which in excess to the operating overloads.

 Jeson Pitt is an online marketing manager for D&F Liquidators.

Top Plant
The Top Plant program honors outstanding manufacturing facilities in North America. View the 2017 Top Plant.
Product of the Year
The Product of the Year program recognizes products newly released in the manufacturing industries.
System Integrator of the Year
Each year, a panel of Control Engineering and Plant Engineering editors and industry expert judges select the System Integrator of the Year Award winners in three categories.
May 2018
Electrical standards, robots and Lean manufacturing, and how an aluminum packaging plant is helping community growth.
April 2018
2017 Product of the Year winners, retrofitting a press, IMTS and Hannover Messe preview, natural refrigerants, testing steam traps
March 2018
SCCR, 2018 Maintenance study, and VFDs in a washdown environment.
April 2018
ROVs, rigs, and the real time; wellsite valve manifolds; AI on a chip; analytics use for pipelines
February 2018
Focus on power systems, process safety, electrical and power systems, edge computing in the oil & gas industry
December 2017
Product of the Year winners, Pattern recognition, Engineering analytics, Revitalize older pump installations
Spring 2018
Burners for heat-treating furnaces, CHP, dryers, gas humidification, and more
April 2018
Implementing a DCS, stepper motors, intelligent motion control, remote monitoring of irrigation systems
February 2018
Setting internal automation standards

Annual Salary Survey

Before the calendar turned, 2016 already had the makings of a pivotal year for manufacturing, and for the world.

There were the big events for the year, including the United States as Partner Country at Hannover Messe in April and the 2016 International Manufacturing Technology Show in Chicago in September. There's also the matter of the U.S. presidential elections in November, which promise to shape policy in manufacturing for years to come.

But the year started with global economic turmoil, as a slowdown in Chinese manufacturing triggered a worldwide stock hiccup that sent values plummeting. The continued plunge in world oil prices has resulted in a slowdown in exploration and, by extension, the manufacture of exploration equipment.

Read more: 2015 Salary Survey

The Maintenance and Reliability Coach's blog
Maintenance and reliability tips and best practices from the maintenance and reliability coaches at Allied Reliability Group.
One Voice for Manufacturing
The One Voice for Manufacturing blog reports on federal public policy issues impacting the manufacturing sector. One Voice is a joint effort by the National Tooling and Machining...
The Maintenance and Reliability Professionals Blog
The Society for Maintenance and Reliability Professionals an organization devoted...
Machine Safety
Join this ongoing discussion of machine guarding topics, including solutions assessments, regulatory compliance, gap analysis...
Research Analyst Blog
IMS Research, recently acquired by IHS Inc., is a leading independent supplier of market research and consultancy to the global electronics industry.
Marshall on Maintenance
Maintenance is not optional in manufacturing. It’s a profit center, driving productivity and uptime while reducing overall repair costs.
Lachance on CMMS
The Lachance on CMMS blog is about current maintenance topics. Blogger Paul Lachance is president and chief technology officer for Smartware Group.
Maintenance & Safety
The maintenance journey has been a long, slow trek for most manufacturers and has gone from preventive maintenance to predictive maintenance.
Industrial Analytics
This digital report explains how plant engineers and subject matter experts (SME) need support for time series data and its many challenges.
IIoT: Operations & IT
This digital report will explore several aspects of how IIoT will transform manufacturing in the coming years.
Randy Steele
Maintenance Manager; California Oils Corp.
Matthew J. Woo, PE, RCDD, LEED AP BD+C
Associate, Electrical Engineering; Wood Harbinger
Randy Oliver
Control Systems Engineer; Robert Bosch Corp.
Data Centers: Impacts of Climate and Cooling Technology
This course focuses on climate analysis, appropriateness of cooling system selection, and combining cooling systems.
Safety First: Arc Flash 101
This course will help identify and reveal electrical hazards and identify the solutions to implementing and maintaining a safe work environment.
Critical Power: Hospital Electrical Systems
This course explains how maintaining power and communication systems through emergency power-generation systems is critical.
click me