Lamp and ballast guide

Industrial lighting varies widely by environment and application. From control room to laboratory to warehouse, each has its own lighting requirements. This article describes lamp types and uses, ballast data, and how to specify the proper lighting for industrial areas.
By Plant Engineering Staff July 6, 2001

Plant Engineering – December 2000

LIGHTING

Reference File: Lamp and ballast guide

Sidebar:
HID ballast terminology

Tables:

  • Lighting warehouse areas
  • Fluorescent lamp data
  • IESNA recommended lighting levels
  • HID lamp data
  • Ballast information for HID
  • Ballast information for fluorescent lamps
    • Jack Smith, Senior Editor, PLANT ENGINEERING Magazine
    • Lighting industrial areas

    • Lamp types and uses

    • Ballast data

      • Industrial lighting varies widely by environment and application. Workplaces range from control room to laboratory to warehouse. Each has its own lighting requirements.

        The industrial workplace environment is divided into two general categories—low bay and high bay. Areas where the luminaire is less than 20-ft above the floor are considered low bay, while areas where the luminaire is more than 20-ft above the floor are high bay. Low bay fixtures should spread light and reduce glare, while high bay units should concentrate light with a medium spread and prominent downward light component.

        Luminance — also called brightness — is light emitted from a surface. It is measured in candelas per square meter. Luminance levels should be kept uniform to prevent worker eyestrain and fatigue, which could affect productivity. Also, accidents could occur when moving between areas not uniformly illuminated.

        Lumen output of a lamp at approximately 100 hr of operation is known as initial lumens. The output of a lamp after it has operated for approximately 40% of its rated life is known as mean lumens.

        Color temperature describes the appearance of the lamp source measured in deg Kelvin. High numbers are considered cool and blue in appearance. Low numbers are warm and red/yellow in appearance.

        Color rendering index (CRI) measures on a scale of 1%%MDASSML%%100 how accurately colors appear under a certain source. The most accurate rendering is 100.

        Lamp efficacy is measured in lumens per Watt and is the efficiency of the lamp. Like miles per gallon, the higher the number, the better the energy efficiency.

        Ballasts
        Arc discharge lamps, such as HID and fluorescent, require ballasts to establish the arc and maintain electrical current once the arc is struck. Ballasts also compensate for voltage variations.

        Magnetic and electronic ballasts are available for fluorescent lighting systems. Ongoing developments in both lamps and ballasts are improving their efficiencies and extending their lives. Both translate to cost reductions in your plant.

        The effects of temperature on the life expectancy of a ballast and its components are shown in the accompany graph .

        Typical industrial facility areas

      • Production

      • Inspection

      • Warehouses

      • Offices

      • Public areas

      • Laboratories

      • Clean rooms

      • Control rooms

        • Critical lighting parameters

        • Adequate lighting levels

        • Uniform illuminance

        • Vertical lighting

        • Glare reduction

        • Balance brightness

        • Appropriate color performance

        • Appropriate mounting heights

          • Recommended mounting heights for luminaires are shown in the accompanying illustration .

            Plant Engineering Magazine extends its appreciation to Philips Lighting and Lithonia Lighting for the use of their material in the preparation of this article.

            —Jack Smith, Senior Editor, 630-320-7147, jsmith@cahners.com

            Sidebar:
            HID ballast terminology

            Ballast regulation. Ability of a ballast to control lamp wattage, and therefore lamp output, when subjected to changes in line voltage.

            Dip tolerance. Amount of line voltage drop a ballast can sustain before the lamp extinguishes. Usually expressed as a percentage; the higher the percentage, the better.

            Ballast losses. Amount of additional energy a ballast consumes to operate the lamp (line Watts minus lamp Watts). There is usually a tradeoff between ballast losses and ballast regulation.

            Constant wattage autotransformer (CWA). Lead-type regulator and the most widely used HID ballast. It offers good ballast regulation and moderate ballast losses. CWA is available for metal halide and high-pressure sodium lamps.

            SCWA. Pulse-start version of the CWA ballast, but with greater lumen capabilities. Use on pulse-start metal halide lamps only.

            LLRPSL. Low loss reactor used in areas with very little line voltage regulation. They are designed as an energy saving system. Use on pulse-start metal halide lamps only.

            RLB. Regulated lag ballast (LAG-type regulator, “reg-lag”) used in areas where line dip tolerance is critical. It exhibits the best ballast regulation. Use on pulse-start metal halide lamps only.

            MRB. Magnetic regulated ballast referred to as a regulated or stabilized type, has operating characteristics similar to the RLB. Use on high-pressure sodium sources only.

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            Lighting warehouse areas

            Open areasFootcandles on floor
            Receipt/dispatch
            Loading bays 15
            Unpacking, sorting,
            and control station 20
            Packing and dispatch 30
            Supervisor’s desk 50
            Open areas
            Large item storage 10
            Medium item storage 20
            Small item storage 30
            Rack areas Footcandles on racks
            Manual racks
            Large item storage 10
            Medium item storage 20
            Small item storage 30
            Self-service racks 50
            Automated racks, high-rise aisles 20-50

            Fluorescent lamp data

            Lamp typeInitial lumensMean lumensLumen depreciationLamp life, 3 hr/startColor rendering index (CRI)Lamp efficacy,
            F40 T12 Energy saving 2650 2306 0.87 20,000 60%%MDASSML%%70 65
            F40 T12 Energy saving high color 2800 2520 0.90 20,000 70%%MDASSML%%80 71
            F32 T8 2850 2565 0.90 20,000 75 86
            F32 T8 High color 2950 2655 0.90 20,000 82%%MDASSML%%95 89
            F32 T8 Long life 3000 2850 0.95 24,000 85 95
            Slimline
            F48 T12 2900 2610 0.90 9000 60%%MDASSML%%70 54
            F48 T12 Energy saving 2400 2160 0.90 9000 62 54
            F96 T12 Energy saving 5500 4950 0.90 12,000 60%%MDASSML%%70 79
            F96 T8 5700 5244 0.92 15,000 75 98
            F96 T8 High color 5900 5369 0.91 15,000 82%%MDASSML%%85 100
            High output
            F48 T12 HO 4050 3483 0.86 12,000 60%%MDASSML%%70 51
            Energy saving 8000 6960 0.87 12,000 60%%MDASSML%%70 67
            F96 T8 HO 8200 7626 0.93 18,000 75 95

            F numbers refer to wattage, where an F48 lamp is rated at 48 W.

            IESNA recommended lighting levels

            Indoor activityAverage fcAverage lux
            Assembly
            Simple 30 300
            Difficult 100 1000
            Exacting 300%%MDASSML%%-1000 3000%%MDASSML%%10,000
            Raw material processing (cleaning, cutting, crushing, sorting, grading, etc.)
            Course 10 100
            Medium 30 300
            Fine 50 500
            Very fine 100 1000
            Inspection
            Simple 30 300
            Difficult 100 1000
            Exacting 300%%MDASSML%%1000 3000%%MDASSML%%10,000
            Material handling
            Shipping and receiving 30 300
            Wrapping, packing, labeling 30 300
            Picking stock and classifying 30 300
            Loading (inside truck) 10 100
            Machining
            Rough bench or machine work 30 300
            Medium bench or machine work 50 500
            Fine bench or machine work 300%%MDASSML%%1000 3000%%MDASSML%%10,000
            Extra-fine bench or machine work 300%%MDASSML%%1000 3000%%MDASSML%%10,000
            Storage rooms or warehouses
            Inactive 5 50
            Active, bulky items, large labels 10 100
            Active, small items, small labels 30 300
            Cleanrooms
            Workspace 80 800
            Food processing
            Workroom 30 300
            Inspection areas 150 1500
            Outdoor activity Average fc, horizontal/vertical Average lux, horizontal/vertical
            Building exteriors
            Active entrances 5/3 50/30
            Inactive entrances (normally locked) 3/3 30/30
            Building surrounds 5/3 50/30
            Storage yards
            Active 10/3 100/30
            Inactive 1/0.3 10/3
            Building and monuments, floodlighting (vertical only)
            Bright surroundings, light surface 3 30
            Bright surroundings, dark surface 0 100
            Dark surroundings, light surface 3 30
            Dark surroundings, dark surface 3 30

            HID lamp data

            Nominal lamp wattageInitial lumensMean lumensLamp life, 10 hr/startColor rendering index (CRI)Typical startup, minTypical restrike, minLamp efficiency, means lumens/W
            Metal halide – clear
            175 14,000 12,000 10,000 65 2%%MDASSML%%5 10%%MDASSML%%15 69
            250 22,000 17,000 10,000 65 2%%MDASSML%%5 10%%MDASSML%%15 68
            400 36,000 25,000 20,000 65 2%%MDASSML%%5 10%%MDASSML%%15 63
            1000 110,000 88,000 12,000 65 2%%MDASSML%%5 10%%MDASSML%%15 88
            Metal halide – coated
            175 14,000 10,000 10,000 70 2%%MDASSML%%5 10%%MDASSML%%15 57
            250 21,500 17,000 10,000 70 2%%MDASSML%%5 10%%MDASSML%%15 68
            400 36,000 25,000 20,000 70 2%%MDASSML%%5 10%%MDASSML%%15 63
            1000 107,000 85,000 12,000 70 2%%MDASSML%%5 10%%MDASSML%%15 85
            Metal halide high output – clear
            400 44,000 34,000 20,000 65 2%%MDASSML%%5 10%%MDASSML%%15 85
            Pulse start metal halide (requires special ballast and ignitor)
            70 5500 4070 12,000 65 2 3%%MDASSML%%4 58
            100 9000 6390 15,000 65 2 3%%MDASSML%%4 64
            150 15,000 11,300 15,000 65 2 3%%MDASSML%%4 75
            200 21,000 15,800 15,000 65 2 3%%MDASSML%%4 79
            320 32,000 21,200 20,000 65 2 3%%MDASSML%%4 66
            350 36,000 27,000 20,000 65 2 3%%MDASSML%%4 77
            400 44,000 37,400 30,000 65 2 3%%MDASSML%%4 94
            Pulse start metal halide (requires special ballast and ignitor)
            150 14,250 10,300 15,000 70 2 3%%MDASSML%%4 69
            200 20,000 14,400 15,000 70 2 3%%MDASSML%%4 72
            350 34,500 24,900 20,000 70 2 3%%MDASSML%%4 71
            400 42,000 35,200 30,000 70 2 3%%MDASSML%%4 88
            Pulse start metal halide reg-lag (requires special reg-lag ballast and ignitor)
            250 23,750 19,000 20,000 65 2 3%%MDASSML%%4 76
            400 44,000 37,400 30,000 65 2 3%%MDASSML%%4 94
            Pulse start metal halide reg-lag (requires special reg-lag ballast and ignitor)
            250 22,600 17,500 20,000 70 2 3%%MDASSML%%4 70
            400 42,000 35,200 30,000 70 2 3%%MDASSML%%4 88
            High pressure sodium – clear
            70 6400 5440 24,000 20%%MDASSML%%25 3%%MDASSML%%4 1%%MDASSML%%2 78
            100 9500 8550 24,000 20%%MDASSML%%25 3%%MDASSML%%4 1%%MDASSML%%2 86
            150 16,000 14,400 24,000 20%%MDASSML%%25 3%%MDASSML%%4 1%%MDASSML%%2 96
            200 22,000 19,600 24,000 20%%MDASSML%%25 3%%MDASSML%%4 1%%MDASSML%%2 98
            250 28,000 25,200 24,000 20%%MDASSML%%25 3%%MDASSML%%4 1%%MDASSML%%2 101
            310 37,000 33,300 24,000 20%%MDASSML%%25 3%%MDASSML%%4 1%%MDASSML%%2 107
            350 46,500 44,000 24,000 20%%MDASSML%%25 3%%MDASSML%%4 1%%MDASSML%%2 126
            400 50,000 45,000 24,000 20%%MDASSML%%25 3%%MDASSML%%4 1%%MDASSML%%2 113
            1000 140,000 126,000 24,000 20%%MDASSML%%25 3%%MDASSML%%4 1%%MDASSML%%2 126
            High pressure sodium – coated
            70 5950 5058 24,000 20%%MDASSML%%25 3%%MDASSML%%4 1%%MDASSML%%2 72
            100 8800 7920 24,000 20%%MDASSML%%25 3%%MDASSML%%4 1%%MDASSML%%2 79
            150 15,000 13,500 24,000 20%%MDASSML%%25 3%%MDASSML%%4 1%%MDASSML%%2 90
            250 26,000 23,400 24,000 20%%MDASSML%%25 3%%MDASSML%%4 1%%MDASSML%%2 94
            400 47,500 42,750 24,000 20%%MDASSML%%25 3%%MDASSML%%4 1%%MDASSML%%2 107

            Ballast information for HID

            Ballast typeInput WBallast regulation line voltage/line wattageBallast lossesAverage dip tolerance, %Voltages
            Metal halide
            400 W CWA 458 Medium 50 120, 208, 240, 277, 347, 480
            400 W SCWA 456 Medium 50 120, 208, 240, 277, 347, 480
            350 W SCWA 400 Medium 40 120, 208, 240, 277, 347, 480
            400 W LLRPSL 425 Low 25 277
            350 W LLRPSL 375 Low 25 277
            400 W RLB 465 High 45%%MDASSML%%50 120, 208, 240, 277, 347, 480
            250 W RLB 298 High 30 120, 208, 240, 277, 347, 480
            175 W RLB 220 High 30 120, 208, 240, 277, 347, 480
            High pressure sodium
            400 W CWA 457 Med%%MDASSML%%high 40 120, 208, 240, 277, 347, 480
            250 W CWA 295 Med%%MDASSML%%high 30 120, 208, 240, 277, 347, 480
            400 W MRB 480 High 45 120, 208, 240, 277, 480

            Ballast information for fluorescent lamps

            Lamp typesMagnetic T12, T8Electronic T12, T8
            Typical lumens/W with T8 lamps (4-ft length) 72 86
            Operating frequency 60 Hz 20%%MDASSML%%25 kHz
            Causes stroboscopic effect Yes, moderate No
            Sound rating A%%MDASSML%%D A+
            Operating temperature ratio Base 12% cooler
            Typical harmonic distortion 15%%MDASSML%%30% m20%
            Allowable line voltage variation the ballast can withstand and still properly operate the lamp

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