White Paper: Adaptive Output Tracking of Driven Oscillators
Heart dynamics are very complicated by nature, and it is widely known that accurate analytical models are difficult to develop for cardiac dynamics and different types of arrhythmias. In addition, real-time control technique is needed because of the fatal nature of cardiac arrhythmias. As a result, real-time model-independent control techniques are needed to control heart dynamics in the presence of cardiac arrhythmias.
Heart dynamics are usually unknown and require the application of real-time control technique because of the fatal nature of most cardiac arrhythmias. The problem of controlling the heart dynamics in a real-time manner is formulated as an adaptive learning output-tracking problem. For a class of nonlinear dynamic systems with unknown non linearities and non affine control input , aLyapunov-based technique is used to develop a control law. An adaptive learning algorithm is exploited that guarantees the stabilityof the closed-loop system and convergence of the output tracking error to an adjustable neighborhood of the origin. In addition,good approximation of the unknown non linearities is also achieved by incorporating a persistent exciting signal in the parameterupdate law. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by an application to a cardiac conduction system modelledby two coupled driven oscillators.
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Annual Salary Survey
Before the calendar turned, 2016 already had the makings of a pivotal year for manufacturing, and for the world.
There were the big events for the year, including the United States as Partner Country at Hannover Messe in April and the 2016 International Manufacturing Technology Show in Chicago in September. There's also the matter of the U.S. presidential elections in November, which promise to shape policy in manufacturing for years to come.
But the year started with global economic turmoil, as a slowdown in Chinese manufacturing triggered a worldwide stock hiccup that sent values plummeting. The continued plunge in world oil prices has resulted in a slowdown in exploration and, by extension, the manufacture of exploration equipment.
Read more: 2015 Salary Survey