White Paper: Adaptive Output Tracking of Driven Oscillators
Heart dynamics are very complicated by nature, and it is widely known that accurate analytical models are difficult to develop for cardiac dynamics and different types of arrhythmias. In addition, real-time control technique is needed because of the fatal nature of cardiac arrhythmias. As a result, real-time model-independent control techniques are needed to control heart dynamics in the presence of cardiac arrhythmias.
Heart dynamics are usually unknown and require the application of real-time control technique because of the fatal nature of most cardiac arrhythmias. The problem of controlling the heart dynamics in a real-time manner is formulated as an adaptive learning output-tracking problem. For a class of nonlinear dynamic systems with unknown non linearities and non affine control input , aLyapunov-based technique is used to develop a control law. An adaptive learning algorithm is exploited that guarantees the stabilityof the closed-loop system and convergence of the output tracking error to an adjustable neighborhood of the origin. In addition,good approximation of the unknown non linearities is also achieved by incorporating a persistent exciting signal in the parameterupdate law. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by an application to a cardiac conduction system modelledby two coupled driven oscillators.
Annual Salary Survey
After almost a decade of uncertainty, the confidence of plant floor managers is soaring. Even with a number of challenges and while implementing new technologies, there is a renewed sense of optimism among plant managers about their business and their future.
The respondents to the 2014 Plant Engineering Salary Survey come from throughout the U.S. and serve a variety of industries, but they are uniform in their optimism about manufacturing. This year’s survey found 79% consider manufacturing a secure career. That’s up from 75% in 2013 and significantly higher than the 63% figure when Plant Engineering first started asking that question a decade ago.