Reliability considerations in simple paralleling applications

04/10/2013


Installation considerations

Installing and commissioning paralleled generator sets is not a simple process. A qualified manufacturer will have experience with protective relaying, system grounding, and other paralleling issues beyond the generator set functionality. Working with a manufacturer that has substantial paralleling experience over a wide range of applications and will assume responsibility for a correct installation is a key to a successful project even in the most basic paralleling application. There are several considerations that an experienced installer will address. 

Selective coordination. The National Electrical Code (NFPA 70) requires selective coordination for emergency and legally required loads (Sections 700.27 and 701.27). Any downstream breakers must coordinate with upstream overcurrent protection such as paralleling breakers or a genset mounted breaker. Coordinating with a generator set mounted molded case circuit breaker (MCCB) with an instantaneous trip will be very difficult and will require in most cases that the downstream breakers are supplied from the same breaker manufacturer as the genset mounted MCCB. It is much easier to coordinate with power breakers as are most often used in paralleling switchgear as they are typically equipped with a programmable trip unit specifically for the purpose of coordination. When the generator control includes integral, UL listed overcurrent protection, coordination between the genset and the paralleling breaker is simplified because the overcurrent trip curve is optimized to allow the maximum permissible time delay while still protecting the alternator.

Separation of circuits. The National Electrical Code (700.10(B)(5)) requires that emergency loads are separated from legally required and optional loads. NEC 700.10(B)(5)(d) allows the use of “single or multiple feeders to supply distribution equipment between the emergency source and the point where the combination of emergency, legally required or optional loads are separated.” In this context the “emergency source” can refer to either a single generator set or the bus in the case of paralleled generator sets. Emergency circuits must be separated from legally required and optional standby circuits with separate circuit breakers installed in separate switchboard sections or enclosures. Emergency loads must be switched using a dedicated transfer switch, separate from legally required and optional standby circuits.

There is some ambiguity in the code regarding whether legally required and optional standby circuits need to be separated from each other. The language in the code doesn’t explicitly require separation of legally required loads from optional standby loads, but all of the exhibits in the NEC handbook show them as separate. Some authorities having jurisdiction (AHJs) have enforced separation of legally required loads from emergency standby loads. 

Isolation of generators from the paralleling bus. To enable maximum reliability and safety, there must be means to individually disconnect each generator from the paralleling bus located at the paralleling switchboard. Without this disconnecting means, typically an incoming breaker, a fault on one generator can make all generators inoperable and all generators will have to be locked out to do maintenance work on any generator in compliance with NFPA 70E lockout-tagout requirements (see Figure 3). Without this disconnecting means, much of the value of having a redundant generator will be lost.

Figure 3: Distribution panel with no incoming breaker: Without the incoming breaker, a fault in one generator feed or maintenance on one generator will make the whole system inoperable. Courtesy: Cummins Power Generation

10-second start requirement. The National Electrical Code requires that emergency loads are served within 10 seconds of a utility failure. As 10 seconds typically isn’t enough time to start, synchronize, and close multiple generator sets, this requirement means that each of the generator sets in the system must be large enough to carry all of the emergency loads on its own. For example, a system of three paralleled 600 kW generator sets will not meet the NEC requirement if the emergency load exceeds 600 kW. To meet this requirement, the sequence of operations should not require any interaction with a master controller. All control functions should be carried out independently by the generator and the transfer switch controls with no communication required other than a genset start command. 

Supplier of distribution switchboard. Sourcing the generator and paralleling controls separately from the switchboard complicates a project. The contractor and consulting engineer must have a clear definition of what is included in the scope of supply for each part of the system. Dividing scope of supply won’t be limited to equipment but will also include assignment of responsibility for meeting code requirements like selective coordination and separation of circuits, system testing and start-up, and ongoing maintenance and service. Having the same entity responsible for supply, installation, and maintenance helps promote an efficient maintenance program. 



Anonymous , 05/08/13 10:25 AM:

Excellent Article.
VISH , CA, United States, 05/08/13 12:53 PM:

Some of the increased cost of the parallel system can be off-set by Peak Load shaving technique. Illustration of Pros and cons of the system will greatly help the engineers to make the right decision.
The Top Plant program honors outstanding manufacturing facilities in North America. View the 2013 Top Plant.
The Product of the Year program recognizes products newly released in the manufacturing industries.
The Leaders Under 40 program features outstanding young people who are making a difference in manufacturing. View the 2013 Leaders here.
The new control room: It's got all the bells and whistles - and alarms, too; Remote maintenance; Specifying VFDs
2014 forecast issue: To serve and to manufacture - Veterans will bring skill and discipline to the plant floor if we can find a way to get them there.
2013 Top Plant: Lincoln Electric Company, Cleveland, Ohio
Case Study Database

Case Study Database

Get more exposure for your case study by uploading it to the Plant Engineering case study database, where end-users can identify relevant solutions and explore what the experts are doing to effectively implement a variety of technology and productivity related projects.

These case studies provide examples of how knowledgeable solution providers have used technology, processes and people to create effective and successful implementations in real-world situations. Case studies can be completed by filling out a simple online form where you can outline the project title, abstract, and full story in 1500 words or less; upload photos, videos and a logo.

Click here to visit the Case Study Database and upload your case study.

Why manufacturers need to see energy in a different light: Current approaches to energy management yield quick savings, but leave plant managers searching for ways of improving on those early gains.
Electric motor power measurement and analysis: Understand the basics to drive greater efficiency; Selecting the right control chart; Linear position sensors gain acceptance
Protecting standby generators for mission critical facilities; Selecting energy-efficient transformers; Integrating power monitoring systems; Mitigating harmonics in electrical systems

Annual Salary Survey

Participate in the 2013 Salary Survey

In a year when manufacturing continued to lead the economic rebound, it makes sense that plant manager bonuses rebounded. Plant Engineering’s annual Salary Survey shows both wages and bonuses rose in 2012 after a retreat the year before.

Average salary across all job titles for plant floor management rose 3.5% to $95,446, and bonus compensation jumped to $15,162, a 4.2% increase from the 2010 level and double the 2011 total, which showed a sharp drop in bonus.

2012 Salary Survey Analysis

2012 Salary Survey Results

Maintenance and reliability tips and best practices from the maintenance and reliability coaches at Allied Reliability Group.
The One Voice for Manufacturing blog reports on federal public policy issues impacting the manufacturing sector. One Voice is a joint effort by the National Tooling and Machining...
The Society for Maintenance and Reliability Professionals an organization devoted...
Join this ongoing discussion of machine guarding topics, including solutions assessments, regulatory compliance, gap analysis...
IMS Research, recently acquired by IHS Inc., is a leading independent supplier of market research and consultancy to the global electronics industry.
Maintenance is not optional in manufacturing. It’s a profit center, driving productivity and uptime while reducing overall repair costs.
The Lachance on CMMS blog is about current maintenance topics. Blogger Paul Lachance is president and chief technology officer for Smartware Group.