Lamp and ballast guide

Industrial lighting varies widely by environment and application. Workplaces range from control room to laboratory to warehouse. Each has its own lighting requirements.

12/01/2000


Industrial lighting varies widely by environment and application. Workplaces range from control room to laboratory to warehouse. Each has its own lighting requirements.

The industrial workplace environment is divided into two general categories-low bay and high bay. Areas where the luminaire is less than 20-ft above the floor are considered low bay, while areas where the luminaire is more than 20-ft above the floor are high bay. Low bay fixtures should spread light and reduce glare, while high bay units should concentrate light with a medium spread and prominent downward light component.

Luminance- also called brightness-is light emitted from a surface. It is measured in candelas per square meter. Luminance levels should be kept uniform to prevent worker eyestrain and fatigue, which could affect productivity. Also, accidents could occur when moving between areas not uniformly illuminated.

Lumen output of a lamp at approximately 100 hr of operation is known as initial lumens. The output of a lamp after it has operated for approximately 40% of its rated life is known as mean lumens.

Color temperature describes the appearance of the lamp source measured in deg Kelvin. High numbers are considered cool and blue in appearance. Low numbers are warm and red/yellow in appearance.

Color rendering index (CRI) measures on a scale of 1-100 how accurately colors appear under a certain source. The most accurate rendering is 100.

Lamp efficacy is measured in lumens per Watt and is the efficiency of the lamp. Like miles per gallon, the higher the number, the better the energy efficiency.

Ballasts

Arc discharge lamps, such as HID and fluorescent, require ballasts to establish the arc and maintain electrical current once the arc is struck. Ballasts also compensate for voltage variations.

Magnetic and electronic ballasts are available for fluorescent lighting systems. Ongoing developments in both lamps and ballasts are improving their efficiencies and extending their lives. Both translate to cost reductions in your plant.

Typical industrial facility areas

  • Production

    •  

      • Inspection

        •  

          • Warehouses

            •  

              • Offices

                •  

                  • Public areas

                    •  

                      • Laboratories

                        •  

                          • Clean rooms

                            •  

                              • Control rooms

                                • Critical lighting parameters

                                  • Adequate lighting levels

                                    •  

                                      • Uniform illuminance

                                        •  

                                          • Vertical lighting

                                            •  

                                              • Glare reduction

                                                •  

                                                  • Balance brightness

                                                    •  

                                                      • Appropriate color performance

                                                        •  

                                                          • Appropriate mounting heights

                                                            • Plant Engineeringmagazine extends its appreciation to Philips Lighting and Lithonia Lighting for the use of their material in the preparation of this article.

                                                              -Jack Smith, Senior Editor, 630-320-7147, jsmith@cahners.com

                                                              &HEADLINE>HID ballast terminology&/HEADLINE>

                                                              Ballast regulation. Ability of a ballast to control lamp wattage, and therefore lamp output, when subjected to changes in line voltage.

                                                              Dip tolerance. Amount of line voltage drop a ballast can sustain before the lamp extinguishes. Usually expressed as a percentage; the higher the percentage, the better.

                                                              Ballast losses. Amount of additional energy a ballast consumes to operate the lamp (line Watts minus lamp Watts). There is usually a tradeoff between ballast losses and ballast regulation.

                                                              Constant wattage autotransformer (CWA). Lead-type regulator and the most widely used HID ballast. It offers good ballast regulation and moderate ballast losses. CWA is available for metal halide and high-pressure sodium lamps.

                                                              SCWA. Pulse-start version of the CWA ballast, but with greater lumen capabilities. Use on pulse-start metal halide lamps only.

                                                              LLRPSL. Low loss reactor used in areas with very little line voltage regulation. They are designed as an energy saving system. Use on pulse-start metal halide lamps only.

                                                              RLB. Regulated lag ballast (LAG-type regulator, "reg-lag") used in areas where line dip tolerance is critical. It exhibits the best ballast regulation. Use on pulse-start metal halide lamps only.

                                                              MRB. Magnetic regulated ballast referred to as a regulated or stabilized type, has operating characteristics similar to the RLB. Use on high-pressure sodium sources only.

                                                              Lighting warehouse areas

                                                              Open areasFootcandles on floor

                                                              Receipt/dispatch

                                                              Loading bays

                                                              15

                                                              Unpacking, sorting,

                                                              and control station

                                                              20

                                                              Packing and dispatch

                                                              30

                                                              Supervisor's desk

                                                              50

                                                              Open areas

                                                              Large item storage

                                                              10

                                                              Medium item storage

                                                              20

                                                              Small item storage

                                                              30

                                                              Rack areas

                                                              Footcandles on racks

                                                              Manual racks

                                                              Large item storage

                                                              10

                                                              Medium item storage

                                                              20

                                                              Small item storage

                                                              30

                                                              Self-service racks

                                                              50

                                                              Automated racks, high-rise aisles

                                                              20-50


                                                              Fluorescent lamp data

                                                              Lamp typeInitial lumensMean lumensLumen depreciationLamp life, 3 hr/startColor rendering index (CRI)Lamp efficacy,1mean lumens/W

                                                              F40 T12 Energy saving

                                                              2650

                                                              2306

                                                              0.87

                                                              20,000

                                                              60-70

                                                              65

                                                              F40 T12 Energy saving high color

                                                              2800

                                                              2520

                                                              0.90

                                                              20,000

                                                              70-80

                                                              71

                                                              F32 T8

                                                              2850

                                                              2565

                                                              0.90

                                                              20,000

                                                              75

                                                              86

                                                              F32 T8 High color

                                                              2950

                                                              2655

                                                              0.90

                                                              20,000

                                                              82-95

                                                              89

                                                              F32 T8 Long life

                                                              3000

                                                              2850

                                                              0.95

                                                              24,000

                                                              85

                                                              95

                                                              Slimline

                                                              F48 T12

                                                              2900

                                                              2610

                                                              0.90

                                                              9000

                                                              60-70

                                                              54

                                                              F48 T12 Energy saving

                                                              2400

                                                              2160

                                                              0.90

                                                              9000

                                                              62

                                                              54

                                                              F96 T12 Energy saving

                                                              5500

                                                              4950

                                                              0.90

                                                              12,000

                                                              60-70

                                                              79

                                                              F96 T8

                                                              5700

                                                              5244

                                                              0.92

                                                              15,000

                                                              75

                                                              98

                                                              F96 T8 High color

                                                              5900

                                                              5369

                                                              0.91

                                                              15,000

                                                              82-85

                                                              100

                                                              High output

                                                              F48 T12 HO

                                                              4050

                                                              3483

                                                              0.86

                                                              12,000

                                                              60-70

                                                              51

                                                              Energy saving

                                                              8000

                                                              6960

                                                              0.87

                                                              12,000

                                                              60-70

                                                              67

                                                              F96 T8 HO

                                                              8200

                                                              7626

                                                              0.93

                                                              18,000

                                                              75

                                                              95


                                                              1Based on ANSI input watts of a two-lamp ballast; T12 using magnetic ballast and T8 using electronic ballast.

                                                               

                                                              F numbers refer to wattage, where an F48 lamp is rated at 48 W.

                                                              IESNA recommended lighting levels

                                                              Indoor activityAverage fc1Average lux

                                                              Assembly

                                                              Simple

                                                              30

                                                              300

                                                              Difficult

                                                              100

                                                              1000

                                                              Exacting

                                                              300--1000

                                                              3000-10,000

                                                              Raw material processing (cleaning, cutting, crushing, sorting, grading, etc.)

                                                              Course

                                                              10

                                                              100

                                                              Medium

                                                              30

                                                              300

                                                              Fine

                                                              50

                                                              500

                                                              Very fine

                                                              100

                                                              1000

                                                              Inspection

                                                              Simple

                                                              30

                                                              300

                                                              Difficult

                                                              100

                                                              1000

                                                              Exacting

                                                              300-1000

                                                              3000-10,000

                                                              Material handling

                                                              Shipping and receiving

                                                              30

                                                              300

                                                              Wrapping, packing, labeling

                                                              30

                                                              300

                                                              Picking stock and classifying

                                                              30

                                                              300

                                                              Loading (inside truck)

                                                              10

                                                              100

                                                              Machining

                                                              Rough bench or machine work

                                                              30

                                                              300

                                                              Medium bench or machine work

                                                              50

                                                              500

                                                              Fine bench or machine work

                                                              300-1000

                                                              3000-10,000

                                                              Extra-fine bench or machine work

                                                              300-1000

                                                              3000-10,000

                                                              Storage rooms or warehouses

                                                              Inactive

                                                              5

                                                              50

                                                              Active, bulky items, large labels

                                                              10

                                                              100

                                                              Active, small items, small labels

                                                              30

                                                              300

                                                              Cleanrooms

                                                              Workspace

                                                              80

                                                              800

                                                              Food processing

                                                              Workroom

                                                              30

                                                              300

                                                              Inspection areas

                                                              150

                                                              1500

                                                              Outdoor activity

                                                              Average fc, horizontal/vertical

                                                              Average lux, horizontal/vertical

                                                              Building exteriors

                                                              Active entrances

                                                              5/3

                                                              50/30

                                                              Inactive entrances (normally locked)

                                                              3/3

                                                              30/30

                                                              Building surrounds

                                                              5/3

                                                              50/30

                                                              Storage yards

                                                              Active

                                                              10/3

                                                              100/30

                                                              Inactive

                                                              1/0.3

                                                              10/3

                                                              Building and monuments, floodlighting (vertical only)

                                                              Bright surroundings, light surface

                                                              3

                                                              30

                                                              Bright surroundings, dark surface

                                                              0

                                                              100

                                                              Dark surroundings, light surface

                                                              3

                                                              30

                                                              Dark surroundings, dark surface

                                                              3

                                                              30

                                                              1Task may be horizontal, inclined, or vertical


                                                              HID lamp data

                                                              Nominal lamp wattageInitial lumensMean lumensLamp life, 10 hr/startColor rendering index (CRI)Typical startup, minTypical restrike, minLamp efficiency, means lumens/W

                                                              Metal halide - clear

                                                              175

                                                              14,000

                                                              12,000

                                                              10,000

                                                              65

                                                              2-5

                                                              10-15

                                                              69

                                                              250

                                                              22,000

                                                              17,000

                                                              10,000

                                                              65

                                                              2-5

                                                              10-15

                                                              68

                                                              400

                                                              36,000

                                                              25,000

                                                              20,000

                                                              65

                                                              2-5

                                                              10-15

                                                              63

                                                              1000

                                                              110,000

                                                              88,000

                                                              12,000

                                                              65

                                                              2-5

                                                              10-15

                                                              88

                                                              Metal halide - coated

                                                              175

                                                              14,000

                                                              10,000

                                                              10,000

                                                              70

                                                              2-5

                                                              10-15

                                                              57

                                                              250

                                                              21,500

                                                              17,000

                                                              10,000

                                                              70

                                                              2-5

                                                              10-15

                                                              68

                                                              400

                                                              36,000

                                                              25,000

                                                              20,000

                                                              70

                                                              2-5

                                                              10-15

                                                              63

                                                              1000

                                                              107,000

                                                              85,000

                                                              12,000

                                                              70

                                                              2-5

                                                              10-15

                                                              85

                                                              Metal halide high output - clear

                                                              400

                                                              44,000

                                                              34,000

                                                              20,000

                                                              65

                                                              2-5

                                                              10-15

                                                              85

                                                              Pulse start metal halide1- clear (requires special ballast and ignitor)

                                                              70

                                                              5500

                                                              4070

                                                              12,000

                                                              65

                                                              2

                                                              3-4

                                                              58

                                                              100

                                                              9000

                                                              6390

                                                              15,000

                                                              65

                                                              2

                                                              3-4

                                                              64

                                                              150

                                                              15,000

                                                              11,300

                                                              15,000

                                                              65

                                                              2

                                                              3-4

                                                              75

                                                              200

                                                              21,000

                                                              15,800

                                                              15,000

                                                              65

                                                              2

                                                              3-4

                                                              79

                                                              320

                                                              32,000

                                                              21,200

                                                              20,000

                                                              65

                                                              2

                                                              3-4

                                                              66

                                                              350

                                                              36,000

                                                              27,000

                                                              20,000

                                                              65

                                                              2

                                                              3-4

                                                              77

                                                              400

                                                              44,000

                                                              37,400

                                                              30,000

                                                              65

                                                              2

                                                              3-4

                                                              94

                                                              Pulse start metal halide1- coated (requires special ballast and ignitor)

                                                              150

                                                              14,250

                                                              10,300

                                                              15,000

                                                              70

                                                              2

                                                              3-4

                                                              69

                                                              200

                                                              20,000

                                                              14,400

                                                              15,000

                                                              70

                                                              2

                                                              3-4

                                                              72

                                                              350

                                                              34,500

                                                              24,900

                                                              20,000

                                                              70

                                                              2

                                                              3-4

                                                              71

                                                              400

                                                              42,000

                                                              35,200

                                                              30,000

                                                              70

                                                              2

                                                              3-4

                                                              88

                                                              Pulse start metal halide reg-lag1- clear (requires special reg-lag ballast and ignitor)

                                                              250

                                                              23,750

                                                              19,000

                                                              20,000

                                                              65

                                                              2

                                                              3-4

                                                              76

                                                              400

                                                              44,000

                                                              37,400

                                                              30,000

                                                              65

                                                              2

                                                              3-4

                                                              94

                                                              Pulse start metal halide reg-lag1- coated (requires special reg-lag ballast and ignitor)

                                                              250

                                                              22,600

                                                              17,500

                                                              20,000

                                                              70

                                                              2

                                                              3-4

                                                              70

                                                              400

                                                              42,000

                                                              35,200

                                                              30,000

                                                              70

                                                              2

                                                              3-4

                                                              88

                                                              High pressure sodium - clear

                                                              70

                                                              6400

                                                              5440

                                                              24,000

                                                              20-25

                                                              3-4

                                                              1-2

                                                              78

                                                              100

                                                              9500

                                                              8550

                                                              24,000

                                                              20-25

                                                              3-4

                                                              1-2

                                                              86

                                                              150

                                                              16,000

                                                              14,400

                                                              24,000

                                                              20-25

                                                              3-4

                                                              1-2

                                                              96

                                                              200

                                                              22,000

                                                              19,600

                                                              24,000

                                                              20-25

                                                              3-4

                                                              1-2

                                                              98

                                                              250

                                                              28,000

                                                              25,200

                                                              24,000

                                                              20-25

                                                              3-4

                                                              1-2

                                                              101

                                                              310

                                                              37,000

                                                              33,300

                                                              24,000

                                                              20-25

                                                              3-4

                                                              1-2

                                                              107

                                                              350

                                                              46,500

                                                              44,000

                                                              24,000

                                                              20-25

                                                              3-4

                                                              1-2

                                                              126

                                                              400

                                                              50,000

                                                              45,000

                                                              24,000

                                                              20-25

                                                              3-4

                                                              1-2

                                                              113

                                                              1000

                                                              140,000

                                                              126,000

                                                              24,000

                                                              20-25

                                                              3-4

                                                              1-2

                                                              126

                                                              High pressure sodium - coated

                                                              70

                                                              5950

                                                              5058

                                                              24,000

                                                              20-25

                                                              3-4

                                                              1-2

                                                              72

                                                              100

                                                              8800

                                                              7920

                                                              24,000

                                                              20-25

                                                              3-4

                                                              1-2

                                                              79

                                                              150

                                                              15,000

                                                              13,500

                                                              24,000

                                                              20-25

                                                              3-4

                                                              1-2

                                                              90

                                                              250

                                                              26,000

                                                              23,400

                                                              24,000

                                                              20-25

                                                              3-4

                                                              1-2

                                                              94

                                                              400

                                                              47,500

                                                              42,750

                                                              24,000

                                                              20-25

                                                              3-4

                                                              1-2

                                                              107


                                                              1High lumen, pulse start lamp/ballast system with a capacitor and internal ignitor

                                                               

                                                              Ballast information for HID

                                                              Ballast typeInput WBallast regulation line voltage/line wattageBallast lossesAverage dip tolerance, %Voltages1

                                                              Metal halide

                                                              400 W CWA

                                                              458


                                                              Medium

                                                              50

                                                              120, 208, 240, 277, 347, 480

                                                              400 W SCWA

                                                              456


                                                              Medium

                                                              50

                                                              120, 208, 240, 277, 347, 480

                                                              350 W SCWA

                                                              400


                                                              Medium

                                                              40

                                                              120, 208, 240, 277, 347, 480

                                                              400 W LLRPSL

                                                              425


                                                              Low

                                                              25

                                                              277

                                                              350 W LLRPSL

                                                              375


                                                              Low

                                                              25

                                                              277

                                                              400 W RLB

                                                              465


                                                              High

                                                              45-50

                                                              120, 208, 240, 277, 347, 480

                                                              250 W RLB

                                                              298


                                                              High

                                                              30

                                                              120, 208, 240, 277, 347, 480

                                                              175 W RLB

                                                              220


                                                              High

                                                              30

                                                              120, 208, 240, 277, 347, 480

                                                              High pressure sodium

                                                              400 W CWA

                                                              457


                                                              Med-high

                                                              40

                                                              120, 208, 240, 277, 347, 480

                                                              250 W CWA

                                                              295


                                                              Med-high

                                                              30

                                                              120, 208, 240, 277, 347, 480

                                                              400 W MRB

                                                              480


                                                              High

                                                              45

                                                              120, 208, 240, 277, 480


                                                              1Some international applications require 50-Hz equipment and different voltages. Consult ballast and lamp manufacturer.

                                                               

                                                              Ballast information for fluorescent lamps

                                                              Lamp typesMagnetic T12, T8Electronic T12, T8

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                                                              Typical lumens/W with T8 lamps (4-ft length)

                                                              72

                                                              86

                                                              Operating frequency

                                                              60 Hz

                                                              20-25 kHz

                                                              Causes stroboscopic effect

                                                              Yes, moderate

                                                              No

                                                              Sound rating

                                                              A-D

                                                              A+

                                                              Operating temperature ratio

                                                              Base