Lamp and ballast guide

Industrial lighting varies widely by environment and application. From control room to laboratory to warehouse, each has its own lighting requirements. This article describes lamp types and uses, ballast data, and how to specify the proper lighting for industrial areas.

07/06/2001


Plant Engineering - December 2000

LIGHTING

Reference File: Lamp and ballast guide

Sidebar:
HID ballast terminology

Tables:

  • Lighting warehouse areas
  • Fluorescent lamp data
  • IESNA recommended lighting levels
  • HID lamp data
  • Ballast information for HID
  • Ballast information for fluorescent lamps
    • Jack Smith, Senior Editor, PLANT ENGINEERING Magazine

      • Lighting industrial areas

      • Lamp types and uses

      • Ballast data

        • Industrial lighting varies widely by environment and application. Workplaces range from control room to laboratory to warehouse. Each has its own lighting requirements.

          The industrial workplace environment is divided into two general categories—low bay and high bay. Areas where the luminaire is less than 20-ft above the floor are considered low bay, while areas where the luminaire is more than 20-ft above the floor are high bay. Low bay fixtures should spread light and reduce glare, while high bay units should concentrate light with a medium spread and prominent downward light component.

          Luminance — also called brightness — is light emitted from a surface. It is measured in candelas per square meter. Luminance levels should be kept uniform to prevent worker eyestrain and fatigue, which could affect productivity. Also, accidents could occur when moving between areas not uniformly illuminated.

          Lumen output of a lamp at approximately 100 hr of operation is known as initial lumens. The output of a lamp after it has operated for approximately 40% of its rated life is known as mean lumens.

          Color temperature describes the appearance of the lamp source measured in deg Kelvin. High numbers are considered cool and blue in appearance. Low numbers are warm and red/yellow in appearance.

          Color rendering index (CRI) measures on a scale of 1%%MDASSML%%100 how accurately colors appear under a certain source. The most accurate rendering is 100.

          Lamp efficacy is measured in lumens per Watt and is the efficiency of the lamp. Like miles per gallon, the higher the number, the better the energy efficiency.

          Ballasts
          Arc discharge lamps, such as HID and fluorescent, require ballasts to establish the arc and maintain electrical current once the arc is struck. Ballasts also compensate for voltage variations.

          Magnetic and electronic ballasts are available for fluorescent lighting systems. Ongoing developments in both lamps and ballasts are improving their efficiencies and extending their lives. Both translate to cost reductions in your plant.

          The effects of temperature on the life expectancy of a ballast and its components are shown in the accompany graph .

          Typical industrial facility areas

          • Production

          • Inspection

          • Warehouses

          • Offices

          • Public areas

          • Laboratories

          • Clean rooms

          • Control rooms

            • Critical lighting parameters

              • Adequate lighting levels

              • Uniform illuminance

              • Vertical lighting

              • Glare reduction

              • Balance brightness

              • Appropriate color performance

              • Appropriate mounting heights

                • Recommended mounting heights for luminaires are shown in the accompanying illustration .

                  Plant Engineering Magazine extends its appreciation to Philips Lighting and Lithonia Lighting for the use of their material in the preparation of this article.

                  —Jack Smith, Senior Editor, 630-320-7147, jsmith@cahners.com

                  Sidebar:
                  HID ballast terminology

                  Ballast regulation. Ability of a ballast to control lamp wattage, and therefore lamp output, when subjected to changes in line voltage.

                  Dip tolerance. Amount of line voltage drop a ballast can sustain before the lamp extinguishes. Usually expressed as a percentage; the higher the percentage, the better.

                  Ballast losses. Amount of additional energy a ballast consumes to operate the lamp (line Watts minus lamp Watts). There is usually a tradeoff between ballast losses and ballast regulation.

                  Constant wattage autotransformer (CWA). Lead-type regulator and the most widely used HID ballast. It offers good ballast regulation and moderate ballast losses. CWA is available for metal halide and high-pressure sodium lamps.

                  SCWA. Pulse-start version of the CWA ballast, but with greater lumen capabilities. Use on pulse-start metal halide lamps only.

                  LLRPSL. Low loss reactor used in areas with very little line voltage regulation. They are designed as an energy saving system. Use on pulse-start metal halide lamps only.

                  RLB. Regulated lag ballast (LAG-type regulator, "reg-lag") used in areas where line dip tolerance is critical. It exhibits the best ballast regulation. Use on pulse-start metal halide lamps only.

                  MRB. Magnetic regulated ballast referred to as a regulated or stabilized type, has operating characteristics similar to the RLB. Use on high-pressure sodium sources only.

                  [ Back to top ]

                  Lighting warehouse areas

                  Open areasFootcandles on floor

                  Receipt/dispatch

                  Loading bays

                  15

                  Unpacking, sorting,

                  and control station

                  20

                  Packing and dispatch

                  30

                  Supervisor's desk

                  50

                  Open areas

                  Large item storage

                  10

                  Medium item storage

                  20

                  Small item storage

                  30

                  Rack areas

                  Footcandles on racks

                  Manual racks

                  Large item storage

                  10

                  Medium item storage

                  20

                  Small item storage

                  30

                  Self-service racks

                  50

                  Automated racks, high-rise aisles

                  20-50

                   

                  Fluorescent lamp data

                  Lamp typeInitial lumensMean lumensLumen depreciationLamp life, 3 hr/startColor rendering index (CRI)Lamp efficacy,

                  F40 T12 Energy saving

                  2650

                  2306

                  0.87

                  20,000

                  60%%MDASSML%%70

                  65

                  F40 T12 Energy saving high color

                  2800

                  2520

                  0.90

                  20,000

                  70%%MDASSML%%80

                  71

                  F32 T8

                  2850

                  2565

                  0.90

                  20,000

                  75

                  86

                  F32 T8 High color

                  2950

                  2655

                  0.90

                  20,000

                  82%%MDASSML%%95

                  89

                  F32 T8 Long life

                  3000

                  2850

                  0.95

                  24,000

                  85

                  95

                  Slimline

                  F48 T12

                  2900

                  2610

                  0.90

                  9000

                  60%%MDASSML%%70

                  54

                  F48 T12 Energy saving

                  2400

                  2160

                  0.90

                  9000

                  62

                  54

                  F96 T12 Energy saving

                  5500

                  4950

                  0.90

                  12,000

                  60%%MDASSML%%70

                  79

                  F96 T8

                  5700

                  5244

                  0.92

                  15,000

                  75

                  98

                  F96 T8 High color

                  5900

                  5369

                  0.91

                  15,000

                  82%%MDASSML%%85

                  100

                  High output

                  F48 T12 HO

                  4050

                  3483

                  0.86

                  12,000

                  60%%MDASSML%%70

                  51

                  Energy saving

                  8000

                  6960

                  0.87

                  12,000

                  60%%MDASSML%%70

                  67

                  F96 T8 HO

                  8200

                  7626

                  0.93

                  18,000

                  75

                  95

                   

                  F numbers refer to wattage, where an F48 lamp is rated at 48 W.

                  IESNA recommended lighting levels

                  Indoor activityAverage fcAverage lux

                  Assembly

                  Simple

                  30

                  300

                  Difficult

                  100

                  1000

                  Exacting

                  300%%MDASSML%%-1000

                  3000%%MDASSML%%10,000

                  Raw material processing (cleaning, cutting, crushing, sorting, grading, etc.)

                  Course

                  10

                  100

                  Medium

                  30

                  300

                  Fine

                  50

                  500

                  Very fine

                  100

                  1000

                  Inspection

                  Simple

                  30

                  300

                  Difficult

                  100

                  1000

                  Exacting

                  300%%MDASSML%%1000

                  3000%%MDASSML%%10,000

                  Material handling

                  Shipping and receiving

                  30

                  300

                  Wrapping, packing, labeling

                  30

                  300

                  Picking stock and classifying

                  30

                  300

                  Loading (inside truck)

                  10

                  100

                  Machining

                  Rough bench or machine work

                  30

                  300

                  Medium bench or machine work

                  50

                  500

                  Fine bench or machine work

                  300%%MDASSML%%1000

                  3000%%MDASSML%%10,000

                  Extra-fine bench or machine work

                  300%%MDASSML%%1000

                  3000%%MDASSML%%10,000

                  Storage rooms or warehouses

                  Inactive

                  5

                  50

                  Active, bulky items, large labels

                  10

                  100

                  Active, small items, small labels

                  30

                  300

                  Cleanrooms

                  Workspace

                  80

                  800

                  Food processing

                  Workroom

                  30

                  300

                  Inspection areas

                  150

                  1500

                  Outdoor activity

                  Average fc, horizontal/vertical

                  Average lux, horizontal/vertical

                  Building exteriors

                  Active entrances

                  5/3

                  50/30

                  Inactive entrances (normally locked)

                  3/3

                  30/30

                  Building surrounds

                  5/3

                  50/30

                  Storage yards

                  Active

                  10/3

                  100/30

                  Inactive

                  1/0.3

                  10/3

                  Building and monuments, floodlighting (vertical only)

                  Bright surroundings, light surface

                  3

                  30

                  Bright surroundings, dark surface

                  0

                  100

                  Dark surroundings, light surface

                  3

                  30

                  Dark surroundings, dark surface

                  3

                  30


                   

                  HID lamp data

                  Nominal lamp wattageInitial lumensMean lumensLamp life, 10 hr/startColor rendering index (CRI)Typical startup, minTypical restrike, minLamp efficiency, means lumens/W

                  Metal halide - clear

                  175

                  14,000

                  12,000

                  10,000

                  65

                  2%%MDASSML%%5

                  10%%MDASSML%%15

                  69

                  250

                  22,000

                  17,000

                  10,000

                  65

                  2%%MDASSML%%5

                  10%%MDASSML%%15

                  68

                  400

                  36,000

                  25,000

                  20,000

                  65

                  2%%MDASSML%%5

                  10%%MDASSML%%15

                  63

                  1000

                  110,000

                  88,000

                  12,000

                  65

                  2%%MDASSML%%5

                  10%%MDASSML%%15

                  88

                  Metal halide - coated

                  175

                  14,000

                  10,000

                  10,000

                  70

                  2%%MDASSML%%5

                  10%%MDASSML%%15

                  57

                  250

                  21,500

                  17,000

                  10,000

                  70

                  2%%MDASSML%%5

                  10%%MDASSML%%15

                  68

                  400

                  36,000

                  25,000

                  20,000

                  70

                  2%%MDASSML%%5

                  10%%MDASSML%%15

                  63

                  1000

                  107,000

                  85,000

                  12,000

                  70

                  2%%MDASSML%%5

                  10%%MDASSML%%15

                  85

                  Metal halide high output - clear

                  400

                  44,000

                  34,000

                  20,000

                  65

                  2%%MDASSML%%5

                  10%%MDASSML%%15

                  85

                  Pulse start metal halide (requires special ballast and ignitor)

                  70

                  5500

                  4070

                  12,000

                  65

                  2

                  3%%MDASSML%%4

                  58

                  100

                  9000

                  6390

                  15,000

                  65

                  2

                  3%%MDASSML%%4

                  64

                  150

                  15,000

                  11,300

                  15,000

                  65

                  2

                  3%%MDASSML%%4

                  75

                  200

                  21,000

                  15,800

                  15,000

                  65

                  2

                  3%%MDASSML%%4

                  79

                  320

                  32,000

                  21,200

                  20,000

                  65

                  2

                  3%%MDASSML%%4

                  66

                  350

                  36,000

                  27,000

                  20,000

                  65

                  2

                  3%%MDASSML%%4

                  77

                  400

                  44,000

                  37,400

                  30,000

                  65

                  2

                  3%%MDASSML%%4

                  94

                  Pulse start metal halide (requires special ballast and ignitor)

                  150

                  14,250

                  10,300

                  15,000

                  70

                  2

                  3%%MDASSML%%4

                  69

                  200

                  20,000

                  14,400

                  15,000

                  70

                  2

                  3%%MDASSML%%4

                  72

                  350

                  34,500

                  24,900

                  20,000

                  70

                  2

                  3%%MDASSML%%4

                  71

                  400

                  42,000

                  35,200

                  30,000

                  70

                  2

                  3%%MDASSML%%4

                  88

                  Pulse start metal halide reg-lag (requires special reg-lag ballast and ignitor)

                  250

                  23,750

                  19,000

                  20,000

                  65

                  2

                  3%%MDASSML%%4

                  76

                  400

                  44,000

                  37,400

                  30,000

                  65

                  2

                  3%%MDASSML%%4

                  94

                  Pulse start metal halide reg-lag (requires special reg-lag ballast and ignitor)

                  250

                  22,600

                  17,500

                  20,000

                  70

                  2

                  3%%MDASSML%%4

                  70

                  400

                  42,000

                  35,200

                  30,000

                  70

                  2

                  3%%MDASSML%%4

                  88

                  High pressure sodium - clear

                  70

                  6400

                  5440

                  24,000

                  20%%MDASSML%%25

                  3%%MDASSML%%4

                  1%%MDASSML%%2

                  78

                  100

                  9500

                  8550

                  24,000

                  20%%MDASSML%%25

                  3%%MDASSML%%4

                  1%%MDASSML%%2

                  86

                  150

                  16,000

                  14,400

                  24,000

                  20%%MDASSML%%25

                  3%%MDASSML%%4

                  1%%MDASSML%%2

                  96

                  200

                  22,000

                  19,600

                  24,000

                  20%%MDASSML%%25

                  3%%MDASSML%%4

                  1%%MDASSML%%2

                  98

                  250

                  28,000

                  25,200

                  24,000

                  20%%MDASSML%%25

                  3%%MDASSML%%4

                  1%%MDASSML%%2

                  101

                  310

                  37,000

                  33,300

                  24,000

                  20%%MDASSML%%25

                  3%%MDASSML%%4

                  1%%MDASSML%%2

                  107

                  350

                  46,500

                  44,000

                  24,000

                  20%%MDASSML%%25

                  3%%MDASSML%%4

                  1%%MDASSML%%2

                  126

                  400

                  50,000

                  45,000

                  24,000

                  20%%MDASSML%%25

                  3%%MDASSML%%4

                  1%%MDASSML%%2

                  113

                  1000

                  140,000

                  126,000

                  24,000

                  20%%MDASSML%%25

                  3%%MDASSML%%4

                  1%%MDASSML%%2

                  126

                  High pressure sodium - coated

                  70

                  5950

                  5058

                  24,000

                  20%%MDASSML%%25

                  3%%MDASSML%%4

                  1%%MDASSML%%2

                  72

                  100

                  8800

                  7920

                  24,000

                  20%%MDASSML%%25

                  3%%MDASSML%%4

                  1%%MDASSML%%2

                  79

                  150

                  15,000

                  13,500

                  24,000

                  20%%MDASSML%%25

                  3%%MDASSML%%4

                  1%%MDASSML%%2

                  90

                  250

                  26,000

                  23,400

                  24,000

                  20%%MDASSML%%25

                  3%%MDASSML%%4

                  1%%MDASSML%%2

                  94

                  400

                  47,500

                  42,750

                  24,000

                  20%%MDASSML%%25

                  3%%MDASSML%%4

                  1%%MDASSML%%2

                  107

                   



                   

                  Ballast information for HID

                  Ballast typeInput WBallast regulation line voltage/line wattageBallast lossesAverage dip tolerance, %Voltages

                  Metal halide

                  400 W CWA

                  458


                  Medium

                  50

                  120, 208, 240, 277, 347, 480

                  400 W SCWA

                  456


                  Medium

                  50

                  120, 208, 240, 277, 347, 480

                  350 W SCWA

                  400


                  Medium

                  40

                  120, 208, 240, 277, 347, 480

                  400 W LLRPSL

                  425


                  Low

                  25

                  277

                  350 W LLRPSL

                  375


                  Low

                  25

                  277

                  400 W RLB

                  465


                  High

                  45%%MDASSML%%50

                  120, 208, 240, 277, 347, 480

                  250 W RLB

                  298


                  High

                  30

                  120, 208, 240, 277, 347, 480

                  175 W RLB

                  220


                  High

                  30

                  120, 208, 240, 277, 347, 480

                  High pressure sodium

                  400 W CWA

                  457


                  Med%%MDASSML%%high

                  40

                  120, 208, 240, 277, 347, 480

                  250 W CWA

                  295


                  Med%%MDASSML%%high

                  30

                  120, 208, 240, 277, 347, 480

                  400 W MRB

                  480


                  High

                  45

                  120, 208, 240, 277, 480


                   

                   

                  Ballast information for fluorescent lamps

                  Lamp typesMagnetic T12, T8Electronic T12, T8

                  Typical lumens/W with T8 lamps (4-ft length)

                  72

                  86

                  Operating frequency

                  60 Hz

                  20%%MDASSML%%25 kHz

                  Causes stroboscopic effect

                  Yes, moderate

                  No

                  Sound rating

                  A%%MDASSML%%D

                  A+

                  Operating temperature ratio

                  Base

                  12% cooler

                  Typical harmonic distortion

                  15%%MDASSML%%30%

                  m20%

                  Allowable line voltage variation the ballast can withstand and still properly operate the lamp




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