Machine Safety: What differentiates a hazard analysis from a risk assessment?

With machine safety, why aren’t the differences well known between a Hazard Analysis and a Risk Assessment? It has been 12 years since machine safety jumped to the forefront of industrial opportunity.

06/25/2012


Why aren’t the differentiations well known between a Hazard Analysis and a Risk Assessment in the application of machine safety? After all, it’s been 12 years since machine safety jumped to the forefront of industrial opportunity.

 

This question has really been confusing for a large part of the market for several years. In my opinion, only lately have some of the industry consensus standards begun to (subtly) draw out some distinctions. Maybe we can help via this blog.

 

I think there are several places to begin with the term – Hazard Analysis. OSHA defines hazard analysis as follows:

 

“What is a job hazard analysis?”
“A job hazard analysis is a technique that focuses on job tasks as a way to identify hazards before they occur. It focuses on the relationship between the worker, the task, the tools, and the work environment. Ideally, after you identify uncontrolled hazards, you will take steps to eliminate or reduce them to an acceptable risk level.”

 

Conversely, the machine safety consensus standards don’t directly address the term hazard analysis. In my experience over the past thirty plus years both the standards and best practices did their best to discuss hazards but did little to address and minimize hazards using a repeatable standardized process. So, in the early 2000’s when machine safety moved to the industrial forefront with bottom line opportunities, a process emerged called Risk Assessment. So, what is risk assessment?

 

The most recent ANSI B11.0; 2010 does a very good job of laying out risk assessment as a process and that Hazard Analysis is a sub part of the risk assessment process. The following two definitions are offered in this standard:

 

“3.69 risk assessment: The process by which the intended use of the machine, the tasks and hazards, and the level of risk are determined.”

“3.70 risk assessment process: The entire process of identifying hazards, assessing risk, reducing risk, and documenting the results (see Figure 5 in 6.1.3)”, below.

ANSI B11.0; 2010 -- 3.70 risk assessment process: The entire process of identifying hazards, assessing risk, reducing risk, and documenting the results (see Figure 5 in 6.1.3). Courtesy: ANSI B11

 

In my opinion, I would summarize the distinction between Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment by asserting that Risk Assessment is the overall process whereby industry can identify and mitigate all known machine hazards to acceptable levels. The Hazard Analysis effort is then imbedded as a part of the overall comprehensive Risk Assessment process. Therefore, the Risk Assessment process includes the Hazard Analysis and is what develops the full machine safety hazard mitigation plan, validation, and documentation as shown above in the flow chart (Figure 5) from ANSI B11.0; 2010.

 

Your comments or suggestion are always welcome so please let us know your thoughts. Submit your ideas, experiences, and challenges on this subject in the comments section below. Click on the following text if you don't see a comments box, then scroll down: Machine Safety: What differentiates a hazard analysis from a risk assessment? 

 

Related articles:

Machine Safety – does a risk assessment need to be updated for a minor modification to a machine?

Updating Minds About Machine Safety

Machine Guarding & The Hierarchy of Measures for Hazard Mitigation

Machine Safety – does OSHA reference consensus standards for compliance?

 

Contact: www.jbtitus.com for “Solutions for Machine Safety”.



No comments
The Top Plant program honors outstanding manufacturing facilities in North America. View the 2013 Top Plant.
The Product of the Year program recognizes products newly released in the manufacturing industries.
The Engineering Leaders Under 40 program identifies and gives recognition to young engineers who...
The true cost of lubrication: Three keys to consider when evaluating oils; Plant Engineering Lubrication Guide; 11 ways to protect bearing assets; Is lubrication part of your KPIs?
Contract maintenance: 5 ways to keep things humming while keeping an eye on costs; Pneumatic systems; Energy monitoring; The sixth 'S' is safety
Transport your data: Supply chain information critical to operational excellence; High-voltage faults; Portable cooling; Safety automation isn't automatic
Case Study Database

Case Study Database

Get more exposure for your case study by uploading it to the Plant Engineering case study database, where end-users can identify relevant solutions and explore what the experts are doing to effectively implement a variety of technology and productivity related projects.

These case studies provide examples of how knowledgeable solution providers have used technology, processes and people to create effective and successful implementations in real-world situations. Case studies can be completed by filling out a simple online form where you can outline the project title, abstract, and full story in 1500 words or less; upload photos, videos and a logo.

Click here to visit the Case Study Database and upload your case study.

Maintaining low data center PUE; Using eco mode in UPS systems; Commissioning electrical and power systems; Exploring dc power distribution alternatives
Synchronizing industrial Ethernet networks; Selecting protocol conversion gateways; Integrating HMIs with PLCs and PACs
Why manufacturers need to see energy in a different light: Current approaches to energy management yield quick savings, but leave plant managers searching for ways of improving on those early gains.

Annual Salary Survey

Participate in the 2013 Salary Survey

In a year when manufacturing continued to lead the economic rebound, it makes sense that plant manager bonuses rebounded. Plant Engineering’s annual Salary Survey shows both wages and bonuses rose in 2012 after a retreat the year before.

Average salary across all job titles for plant floor management rose 3.5% to $95,446, and bonus compensation jumped to $15,162, a 4.2% increase from the 2010 level and double the 2011 total, which showed a sharp drop in bonus.

2012 Salary Survey Analysis

2012 Salary Survey Results

Maintenance and reliability tips and best practices from the maintenance and reliability coaches at Allied Reliability Group.
The One Voice for Manufacturing blog reports on federal public policy issues impacting the manufacturing sector. One Voice is a joint effort by the National Tooling and Machining...
The Society for Maintenance and Reliability Professionals an organization devoted...
Join this ongoing discussion of machine guarding topics, including solutions assessments, regulatory compliance, gap analysis...
IMS Research, recently acquired by IHS Inc., is a leading independent supplier of market research and consultancy to the global electronics industry.
Maintenance is not optional in manufacturing. It’s a profit center, driving productivity and uptime while reducing overall repair costs.
The Lachance on CMMS blog is about current maintenance topics. Blogger Paul Lachance is president and chief technology officer for Smartware Group.